1/11/06

Cómo medir el caudal de un río

Información obtenida por medio de la
RED HIDROGRAFICA DEL PAIS VASCO

Práctica

1.º Cálculo del caudal aproximado de un río.

a) Método del Barril: Este método rudimentario permite calcular el caudal en regatas de pequeño volumen de agua (hasta 20 1./seg.) Para ello se precisa los siguientes útiles:

— Un bidón o similar de capacidad conocida.

— Un cronómetro.

— Un plástico.

— Una pala o azada.

Para realizar el aforo es preciso encauzar la regata con el plástico, preferentemente en una zona con desnivel, de forma que se introduzca todo o casi todo el agua dentro del barril, midiendo el tiempo de llenado con el cronómetro, se repite la operación dos o tres veces y se calcula el caudal, por medio de:

Q =(V barril) / T llenado

b) Método del Flotador: Es también un método sencillo que permite calcular el caudal con un error no muy grande. Se requiere para realizarlo un cronómetro y un flotador visible.

Se elegirá un tramo del río recto, donde haya pocas turbulencias e irregularidades. Una vez medida la distancia donde se va a medir la velocidad, se echa el flotador al agua y se mide el tiempo que tarda en recorrer la distancia elegida, repitiéndose la operación en tres secciones del río, por lo menos. En el tramo central se calcula la sección del río, midiendo la profundidad en varios puntos y la distancia a los márgenes.

Con estas medidas podremos calcular el caudal del río, teniendo en cuenta que:

0,8 x V medida = V real

y el caudal Q vendrá dado por la fórmula:

donde:

Vi= velocidad.

hi= altura del agua.

li= distancia entre hi y hi- 1.

µ = coeficiente:

1/2 para márgenes con poca pendiente.

1/3 para márgenes con fuerte pendiente.

Ejemplo: Se ha calculado la velocidad entre puntos de un río:

V21= 0,15 m/seg.

V2= 0,20 m./seg.

V3= 0,18 m./seg.

Siendo la sección de la figura, obtener el caudal Q.

2.º Perfil longitudinal de un río.

Se toma la cota del nacimiento del río en abscisas y la distancia en ordenadas. Sobre las abscisas ponemos las alturas de las distintas de nivel, medimos la distancia desde el nacimiento del río hasta el punto de corte con las curvas de nivel. Las distancias obtenidas se sitúan sobre las ordenadas. Una vez situadas estas distancias, se lleva a la altura que le corresponde según la curva de nivel considerada en abscisa. Finalmente. unimos todos los puntos obtenidos por medio de un trazo continuo (conviene utilizar papel milimetrado para realizar. el perfil)

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Los datos que necesitas son los siguientes:

El area transversal de una sección del río (imaginate que le haces un corte, entonces, el area de la profundidad por el ancho del rio)

La velocidad de la corriente (es la que te da el volumen)

Entonces, imaginate un rio "ideal", como una piscina, con angulos rectos.

Digamos que el rio tiene 50 m de ancho, y tiene 3 de profundidad. Entonces, el area transversal, es de 150 m cuadrados.

Ahora, imaginate que la velocidad de la corriente es de 1 metro por segundo, o sea, si tu pones algo que flote (una hoja, una botella) en la corriente, esto se ira rio abajo a 1 m/s.

Entonces, multiplicas el area, por esa velocidad, y ahi lo tienes!

150 * 1 = 150 metros cubicos por segundo, ese es el caudal.

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